Agonistic actions refers to the complex of aggression, threat, appeasement, and also avoidance actions that occurs during encounters between members of the exact same species.

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From: Encyclopedia of stress (Second Edition), 2007

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E.S. Barratt, in global Encyclopedia the the social & behavioral Sciences, 2001

This article provides review of human aggression in ~ the context of agonistic behavior. The term ‘agonistic behavior’ to be introduced into research on aggression and also violence in the middle of the twentieth century because little progress was being do in expertise aggression and violence, especially amongst humans. Aggression has actually been generally defined as behavior which results in physics or psychological damage to an additional person. Agonistic behavior was an ext broadly defined as adaptive action which arise the end of conflicts in between two members the the same species. Thus, acts such together playful jostling were contained under the umbrella that agonistic behavior. The development of the hatchet ‘agonistic’ walk not an outcome in a much better understanding of exactly how to manage human aggression due to the fact that it walk not address the two key obstacles to progress in understanding human being aggression: (a) the lack of objective procedures without which interventions for regulating aggression can not be assessed, and also (b) the absence of a discipline-neutral version for synthesizing study from the many disciplines which study aggression. This short article discusses the category of predictors of human aggression in ~ the paper definition of feasible measurements for delineating aggressive acts. Risk components for predicting aggressive tendencies are discussed from a biological, cognitive, behavioral, and also environmental or social perspective.


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P.J. Gasser, ... M. Orchinik, in Hormones, brain and habits (Second Edition), 2009

3.41.3.2 Acute Regulation that Agonistic Behaviors

Agonistic actions occur in vain situations, and include aggressive, submissive, and also defensive behaviors. Constant with a function in responding to an imminent threat – in this case a competitor or intruder – corticosteroids acutely rise aggressive actions in rats (Haller et al., 1997), fish (Remage-Healey and Bass, 2004, 2007), and golden hamsters (Hayden-Hixson and Ferris, 1991a,b). In the last study, cortisol to be microinjected right into the anterior hypothalamus of adult male gold hamsters, and also the pets were examined for acute changes in the level of aggressive behavior in staged agonistic encounters. Five to twenty minutes adhering to microinjection that a 1-μM cortisol systems (approximately 36 pg cortisol in 0.1 μl), masculine hamsters displayed increased aggressive habits (an index of attacks + bites – retreats throughout the encounter) end vehicle-injected controls. Microinjection of a reduced dose the cortisol systems in the anterior hypothalamus had actually no impact on aggressive behavior, if a higher dose decreased aggressive behavior. In contrast, chronic implants that CORT in the anterior hypothalamus, medial preoptic area, or ventromedial hypothalamus boosted submissive behavior.

In rats, the effect of CORT top top the response of males come agonistic encounters counts upon the rat's previous experience with wild encounters and upon housing conditions. Haller et al. (1997) injected male rats intraperitoneally with 1 mg kg−1 CORT 10 min before staging the dyadic encounter. Rats naive to wild encounters showed increased exploratory habits in response to CORT injection, whereas male rats acquainted with aggressive encounters, but housed alone, proved a rapid rise in threat actions following CORT injection. A 3rd group, proficient males housed with a female, verified yet another an answer to CORT injection – a rapid rise in strike frequency. The plot of CORT in this behavior paradigm are context dependency – they count upon the prior endure of the rat and also the paper definition in which the encounter is staged (Haller et al., 1998).

Similar paper definition dependency of fast corticosteroid action on agonistic behavior has been explained by Remage-Healey and also Bass (2004, 2007) in a varieties of vocalizing fish. Male plainfin midshipmen take place in two reproductive morphs: type I males, which create agonistic calls and also court females through courtship calls; and kind II males, which create agonistic calls, however neither court females nor create courtship calls. In in vitro studies, cortisol rapidly altered fictive call (rhythmic task of the midbrain vocal pattern generator) differentially in organization from form I versus form II males and females. In type I males, cortisol rapidly raised fictive calling, when in type II males and also females, cortisol rapidly decreased fictive calling.

In a separate collection of studies in rats, Kruk et al. (2004) explored the impacts of CORT top top aggressive habits initiated by stimulation the the hypothalamic strike area. In these studies, stimulating electrodes were implanted right into the hypothalamic strike area the adrenalectomized rats. The rats were then inserted in enclosures v an anesthetized adversary rat, and the present required to induce assault behavior, the attack threshold was determined. Injection of rats with stress levels the CORT 10 min before threshold determination substantially decreased the strike threshold. The same concentration of CORT was ineffective once administered 60 or 240 min before threshold determination.

These studies show that corticosteroids can rapidly increase aggressive behavior, probably by plot in the hypothalamus, and that this result is paper definition and/or sheep dependent. Countless studies top top looking in ~ chronic corticosteroid management have reported one of two people decreases in aggressive behavior or boosts in submissive behavior. For example, 3 weeks of everyday CORT injections rises submissive actions in mice (Leshner et al., 1980); in track sparrows, CORT implants suppress territorial actions (Wingfield and also Silverin, 1986); in Anolis and also side-blotched lizards, CORT implants mitigate aggression (DeNardo and also Licht, 1993; Tokarz, 1987); in cichlid fish, CORT implants boost submissive behavior (Munro and Pitcher, 1985). In rainbow trout, acute administration of cortisol leads to rises in locomotor habits in an answer to a conspecific intruder, while chronic key of cortisol inhibits aggressive behavior (Overli et al., 2002). An extensive exposure to anxiety levels of corticosteroids produces behavioral outcomes that comparison sharply through the outcomes created from acute management of CORT ~ above agonistic behavior.

Clearly, there space reciprocal interactions between stress, society status, and agonistic actions at the cellular, neural systems, and behavioral level in vertebrates. Acute fluctuations that CORT may serve to transduce information about social condition in response to society challenges and also lead come rapid alters in monoamine concentration (dopamine, serotonin, and/or norepinephrine) in limbic mind regions that regulate the expression of agonistic behaviors or autonomic output necessary to sustain extreme social interactions. Because that example, once Anolis lizards are exposed to social challenge, over there is a rapid increase in dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (Watt et al., 2007). One could speculate that the clearance of monoamines by CORT-sensitive essential cation transporters (OCTs) is blocked by the rapid action of CORT (see below), and this contributes come the increased levels of extracellular monoamines.


Brian C. Trainor, ... Randy J. Nelson, in Hormones, mind and actions (Third Edition), 2017

1.05.6.1 Rough-and-Tumble Play as an Antecedent to Aggressive Behavior

Juveniles the most species engage in agonistic actions that at least superficially resemble adult aggression. These habits are described as rough-and-tumble play or play fighting. In typical with adult aggression, juvenile rough-and-tumble play comprises both offensive and also defensive maneuvers in which pets attack, bite, pin, wrestle, roll over, and flee. Unequal adult aggression, juvenile rough-and-tumble pat does no involve competition because that resources, territory, or mates. In most species, including humans, youth males communicate in much more rough-and-tumble play than females. Rough-and-tumble play predominates throughout social interactions in prepubertal and also juvenile animals and also gradually declines over the course of pubertal maturation. In general, overt aggression is relatively uncommon prepubertally and boosts concomitantly v reproductive maturation and the linked rise in circulating concentration of gonadal steroids.

The progressive replacement of play fighting through ‘serious’ fighting over the course of ontogeny, coupled v the male prejudice in rough-and-tumble play, invites the conclusion that play fighting and also adult fighting room a developmental continuum in which beat fighting is the immature type of adult aggression. However, based upon several currently of evidence gleaned mostly from research studies in rats and hamsters, Pellis and also colleagues contend that play fighting and adult aggression are distinct behaviors, and also that play fighting is not exercise for adult fighting skills, but instead is practice for basic social skills and competence (Pellis and Pellis, 1988, 1997, 1998, 2007). First, play fighting and adult fighting have different topographies. In pat fighting, attacks are initiated toward the head and also nape, vice versa, in major fighting, strikes are initiated toward the rump (Pellis and Pellis, 1988; Wommack et al., 2003; Taravosh-Lahn and also Delville, 2004). Defensive maneuvers throughout play and also adult fighting differ as well. Come evade an attack, juvenile male rats turn their bodies fully to a supine position, yet adults rotate just partially so that their hind feet remain on the floor (Pellis, 2002). Beat fighting is likewise characterized through frequent duty reversals; for example, the chasee may suddenly rotate around and become the chaser, or a larger pet may voluntarily self-handicap, letting a smaller pet pin or follow the bigger one (reviewed in Pellis and Pellis, 2007). Such function reversals are uncommon in adult aggression. Furthermore, child (preweaning) rats display screen adultlike protective tactics, which space then changed by the juvenile strategies (Pellis and Pellis, 1997). Thus, the does not show up that the details motor trends of youth play fighting space immature or much easier forms that adult fighting. Second, back the frequency of beat fighting decreases end the course of pubertal maturation, pat fighting is not unique to the youth period, and both play fighting and adult fighting can and also do happen in adulthood (Pellis and Pellis, 1988). Once play fighting occurs among adult animals, however, it is more likely to change the ladder to adult fighting, presumably since the adults have reduced tolerance for one another (Pellis and also Pellis, 1988). Third, play fighting and adult fighting appear to have opposite valences. In anticipation that play and during play, rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, i beg your pardon are connected with rewarding stimuli and also positive social affect. In contrast, during threatening situations, consisting of intermale fighting, rats emit 22 kHz vocalizations, i m sorry are connected with aversive stimuli and negative social impact (Knutson et al., 1998; the evaluation in Knutson et al., 2002). Thus, beat fighting and adult aggression show up to involve various psychological states. Fourth, neurochemical correlates of male rat juvenile play and adult aggression space not identical. Specifically, juvenile play is connected with a to decrease in hypothalamic levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), vice versa, submission throughout adult wild encounters is no (Burgdorf et al., 2006). This finding supports the id that youth play has positive valence in light of the fact that elevated levels of CCK in cortex are associated with submissive actions during adult aggression and an unfavorable affective says (Knutson et al., 2002; Panksepp et al., 2004). Finally, avenues to engage in rough-and-tumble play throughout the juvenile duration appear to facilitate breakthrough of social an abilities and competency and, if anything, command to lessened overt aggressive encounters in adulthood (Pellis and Pellis, 2007; Cooke and Shukla, 2011; Panksepp and Scott, 2012). Because that example, play-deprived adult rats carry out not appear to have actually learned the behavior strategies that signal submission to a leading rat, and this lack of social competency only invites much more aggression (Von Frijtag et al., 2002). Together, this lines of evidence do not assistance the idea that play fighting is a practice for adult aggression.

The relationship in between play fighting and adult aggression is viewed in different way by Delville and also colleagues, who maintain that they space the same actions expressed during different stages of advance (Delville et al., 2003; Cervantes et al., 2007; Wommack and Delville, 2007). Based upon their considerable studies on the development of aggression in Syrian hamsters, castle argue that play fighting attacks are similar to adult attacks in intent, even though the body part that is the target the the attack is various at the two periods (head vs rear), because both juveniles and also adults flank mark during agonistic interactions together a method of connecting dominant/subordinate status. Furthermore, since the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine inhibits both youth play fighting and adult aggression, there shows up to be a common underlying neurobiology (Delville et al., 2003). The vital to fixing these the opposite viewpoints around whether play fighting is an immature kind of adult aggression may lie in the different methodologies offered to advice agonistic interactions. Pellis and colleagues have actually studied play fighting practically exclusively among group-housed brother or acquainted males in familiar environments, conversely, Delville and colleagues have studied pat fighting nearly exclusively utilizing a resident–intruder paradigm in i m sorry the resident has been socially isolated because weaning and the intruder is a younger and smaller animal. The latter conditions create competition and favor wild responses by one advantaged resident. Therefore, agonistic interactions in between juvenile males under this circumstances might in fact be adultlike aggression in defense of territory, despite the animal's young age and immature reproductive status, and also different topography of aggressive behavior. Thus, the difference between pat fighting and also adult fighting might not rest so lot on the age of the animal as that does on even if it is or no stakes are involved.

As a case in point, sibling rivalry in between spotted hyena cub twins entails overt aggression and can an outcome in siblicide (Frank et al., 1991; Wahaj et al., 2007). Sibling aggression in ~ the an initial year the life in hyenas develops a rank connection within the litter and is mostly over competition because that milk and food. Sibling aggression is an ext intense when regional prey is scarce and tends come be greater within litters the low-ranking females, who are disadvantaged for access to sources within the clan (Wahaj and Holekamp, 2006). Thus, siblicide in hyenas is no obligate, as when proposed, but instead is relatively uncommon and also facultative, arising when maternal sources are insufficient to sustain 2 cubs (Smale et al., 1999). This instance reinforces the idea the the difference between pat fighting and also aggression is not age per se, yet rather whether competition for resources is involved.


Erik Zornik, Darcy B. Kelley, in Hormones, mind and actions (Third Edition), 2017

Abstract

Xenopus vocal habits regulate courtship, reproduction, and also agonistic behaviors; space sexually differentiated; and are shame by steroid hormones. Hormone-regulated listening processing and also vocal manufacturing pathways have been identified. Xenopus vocalizations are facility and dependent on social context and yet space quantitatively stereotyped and robust, allowing for simple analyses. Physiological, anatomical, and molecular research studies of the mind and larynx have actually revealed plenty of mechanisms the underlie sex-typical vocal production. The robust behaviors and also experimental prepare are enabling an integrative approach to understanding how hormones form behavior throughout multiple levels of control.


Affiliative behavior

Behavior that is supportive and also brings individuals together.

Agonistic behavior

Behavior that is aggressive, threatening, combative, and also submissive.

Altruism

Behavior that enhances the recipient's reproduction when reducing the actor's.

Cooperative breeding

Social mechanism in which much more than 2 individuals care for young.

Musth

Annual reproductive period in masculine elephants identified by too much aggressiveness and secretions from temporal glands.

Polyandry

Mating system in i beg your pardon a mrs mates with an ext than one male.

Polygyny

Mating device in i m sorry a male mates with much more than one female.

Protandry

Breeding system in i m sorry individuals adjust sex from male to female.

Protogyny

Breeding device in i m sorry individuals readjust sex from female to male.


Nancy Schultz-Darken, ... Hayley Ash, in The common Marmoset in Captivity and Biomedical Research, 2019

Species-Typical Behaviors

Marmosets in captivity will display the complete variety of affiliative and also agonistic behaviors, intra- and also intergroup intuitive displays, vocalizations, foraging methods (e.g., gnawing for tree exudate, food capture), and also scent noting when housed in a supportive setting (see thing 5). This species-typical actions are important for keeping normal marmoset behavior, breeding, and development <22–24>. Additionally, real estate marmosets in harmonious society groups enables for species-specific behaviors and also buffers the effects of stressful cases <24a>.

Although affiliative behaviors such as grooming and also huddling are seen in captive marmoset groups, over there may likewise be some agonism observed within the group <24b>, most regularly in the kind of visual displays or vocalizations rather than fighting or physical problem <25>. Captive intergroup interaction can also include intuitive displays and vocalizations <25> the would normally be current at territorial edge in larger organic areas. This habits is motivated when numerous captive teams are housed within the same room with enough spacing between the groups. Captive atmospheres may likewise encourage marmosets to exhibit foraging strategies and also scent marking (see the Enrichment section).


M.H. Ferkin, ... A. Petrulis, in Hormones, mind and habits (Third Edition), 2017

1.10.3.4 team Discrimination

Recognition of group members is vital in social types in which agonistic behaviors are command preferentially come alien-group individuals. Group discrimination may happen by individually recognizing each member of the own team and/or by means of a shared group odor. No in every social species, however, there might be a should discriminate in between the fragrant of various other groups. Because that example, in banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, there is no difference in the composition of chemical signals from various groups, and individuals carry out not discriminate in between the fragrant of various groups of similar familiarity, i.e., one of two people two familiar neighboring groups or two unfamiliar groups (Jordan et al., 2010).

The odor of a group can be conferred by a high level of hereditary similarity, either due to kin relationships (e.g., household group) or to high level of inbreeding. If odors are diet-related and also all people from a group share the same food source, this can also create a shared team odor (Halpin, 1986). A team odor can also be created by mixing the odor of all people together on every individual by scent marking one one more (allomarking), or merely by gift in call with one another or through scent noting on the very same sites. Because that example, europe badgers, Meles meles, create a cheap in the subcaudal bag which contains distinctive group membership info (Buesching et al., 2003). This secretion is partly produced by bacter flora. Team members move such flora between one another by pressing the subcaudal pouch against the body of another group member. In part cases, two people press both pouches together, so the the bacterial flora and/or secretions room transferred in between the subcaudal pouches of the 2 individuals. The writer observed thousands of instances of allomarking in between 40 people in natural conditions, describe the regularity and importance the this actions (Buesching et al., 2003). Another example is the europe rabbit, which lives in close-knit social teams (Mykytowycz, 1968, 1970). Leading males note all members the the team with your chin glands. If a hare from one group is experimentally scented through scent native a leading male of another group, and also then introduced ago into its natal group, that is attacked (Mykytowycz, 1968). Leading males even attack females of various other groups and also females that his own group that space scented through the odors the a masculine or female from one more group (Mykytowycz, 1968).



Figure 2.6. Two develops of dominance brought out in chapter 1 and also this chapter, biological and also ecological dominance. Both relate to ecosystem homeostasis. Under organic dominance, dominance amongst social group members influences team stability. The dominant features of a team influence populace homeostasis. Under eco-friendly dominance, dominant plant species have been recognized as fairly stable dominant forms in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and also Cenozoic eras, while existing populations of climax vegetation change with local eco-friendly changes. All such changes influence populations of various other organisms.


Biological dominance is an attribute or characteristic developed by a challenger or team of rivals after having actually expressed agonistic behavior toward one more competitor or team of competitors. The winning individual or team is described as the dominant or alpha individual or group, and the losing competitor is referred to as the subordinate, deferent, or beta separation, personal, instance or group. To fully understand the ide of dominance, this an interpretation must it is in accompanied by a variety of collateral statements:

Dominant status may refer come both individuals within a group and also to the team itself (Fig. 2.6).

The most leading (alpha) individual has actually the greatest status and also control over other societal individuals and receives the most rewards.

Status and control allow the leading (alpha) separation, personal, instance to choose the highest ranking mates, and obtain the appropriate to shelter, space, food, and other resources.

Although dominance hierarchies are regularly thought to it is in a system of stable direct variations in call (Fig. 1.3), status, and authority among group members, location in a power structure may be figured out or affected by a vast array that intrinsic and also extrinsic factors, including an individual traits (genetically established characteristics, because that example, size and also strength, level of aggressiveness or cognizant abilities of the species, and also relationships between group members) or differences in age. Rank also may be dependent top top kin relationships, problems in which some subordinate individuals are able to outrank much more dominant people by acting with each other (as a coalition), experience of the competitor, or the level of interest or invest an individual has in the area in which castle exist.

Dominance condition has different meanings, relying on the level of sociality a types has. A dominant individual in a eusocial varieties may demonstrate much more control that its group, also influencing the reproductive output of the subordinates, 보다 a leading individual in a group that has less the a social nature (Fig. 1.6).

Dominance rank of one individual depends on the result of agonistic encounters in ~ a group. The status, power, and also other rewards one individual has depends on the location it has with partnership to other members the the group.

Dominance rank of a group depends ~ above the an outcome of agonistic encounters in between groups. The status, power, and also other rewards a team has relies on the rank it has actually with relationship to other teams within a certain area.

Because that variability amongst individuals in a team or among different groups within a specific area, prominence is a family member measure and also not an absolute home of people within a social group or in between groups.

Encounters in between all members of a group or in between all groups in a designated area typically results in a ranking because that each individual or group from alpha to omega.

Ranking is represented by a dominance hierarchy or power structure that might be linear, meaning that every individual clearly expresses its an individual rank indigenous alpha (most dominant) to omega (least dominant, submissive, or deferent) under all conditions (Fig. 1.3).

Ranking might be decisive or organized within a team if the alpha separation, personal, instance is clearly dominant and controls the actions of other members the the group (Fig. 2.3).

A decisive leading may be tolerant of its subordinates, in which situation the unit functions as a team. Collaboration generally leads to higher productivity through the unit or group.

A decisive dominant may it is in intolerant the its subordinates, coming to be despotic at its extreme, in which instance the unit loses its team effect. In such a case, productivity is generally low and may bring about intolerable conditions and also the ns of individuals within the group.

A dominant attribute might be determined after one encounter or a variety of encounters in between the same dyadic competitors. Failure to establish dominance, rivals may escalate your agonistic aggressiveness and terminate their encounters v or without a winner. Such encounters might occasionally be life threatening. Fierce compete may result in the beta individual leaving the group. What happens to it counts on whether it enters another group and how it ranks in that group.

Ranking might be indecisive or poorly arranged or liquid if the alpha individual is poorly leading (poor leadership). If prominence rank is not established after a screen of agonistic habits or recurring encounters, the is, dominance rank is poorly demonstrated, the entire culture may have an obstacle determining their rank in the hierarchy, and societal life may absence homeostasis.

A leading individual within a eusocial species produces many or every one of the offspring the the society.

In certain cases, a dominant may influence the reproductive output of subordinates, sometimes even causing atrophication of low grade reproductive systems.

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Although dominance may originally be dependent on assorted expressions of aggression, stable prominence relationships, once developed, room in fact generally maintained in a an ext subtle fashion, often through the use of vocalizations or visual communication, through minimal aggression.