Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the move of one electron indigenous a metal atom come a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed in between cations and also anions.A cation is created when a steel ion loser a valence electron when an anion is created when a non-metal gains a valence electron. Lock both achieve a an ext stable electronic configuration through this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating trends of atoms, v high melt points, and are frequently soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic link which dissolves in H2O, do the resulting solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The propensity of an atom to lure electrons to itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemistry bond in i m sorry valence electrons are lost from one atom and also gained through another. This exchange outcomes in a an ext stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atom involved. An ionic bond is based on attractive electrostatic forces between two ions of opposite charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and an anion. The link is formed when one atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a optimistic ion, or cation. An additional atom, typically a non-metal, is able to gain the electron(s) to become a negative ion, or anion.

One instance of one ionic shortcut is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, native a salt atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its solitary valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough room to accept it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and also are attracted to one one more due come electrostatic forces.


Formation that NaF: an electron is moved from Na to F. The result Na+ and also F– ions room electrically attractive to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, space crystalline solids under typical conditions, and have high melt points. Most of this solids space soluble in H2O and also conduct electrical power when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electricity in equipment is why these substances are called electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a great example the this form of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable electronic states associated with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared in between the two atoms. Every ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, but the larger the difference in electronegativity between the 2 atoms, the better the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids type when cations and anions room attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond strength in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the components that impact it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is characterized as the energy required to different a mole of one ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot be measured empirically, however it can be calculated utilizing electrostatics or approximated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main components that contribute to the magnitude of the lattice power are the charge and also radius that the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases warmth into its surroundings.lattice energy: The lot of power released upon formation of a crystalline ionic solid from gaseous ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. The is characterized as the warmth of development for ions of opposite charge in the gas step to integrate into an ionic solid. As an example, the lattice energy of salt chloride, NaCl, is the power released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ion come together to kind a lattice of alternate ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an adverse sign of the energy is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of together the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction shown above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and green respectively, alternate in the crystal lattice of solid NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be assumed of as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous kind of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction shown above).

Lattice energy cannot be determined experimentally due to the an obstacle in isolating gas ions. The power value can be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculation theoretically v an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors affecting Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande gift the adhering to model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which depends on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility the the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of complimentary space; and r0 is the street to the closestly ion.

This design emphasizes two main factors that add to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the charge on the ions, and the radius, or size, the the ions. The effect of those determinants is:

as the charge of the ions increases, the lattice energy increasesas the dimension of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are also important in predicting the solubility that ionic solids in H2O. Ionic compound with smaller lattice energies tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and anions in one ionic compound can be identified by the lose or obtain of valence electrons important in order to achieve stable, noble gas digital configurations.The variety of cations and also anions that are linked in an ionic link is the simplest ratio of entirety integers that deserve to be combined to reach electrical neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the elements of team 18 that the periodic table, which are monatomic and, with very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i m sorry occurs when an atom or molecule/compound has actually no surplus or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number proportion between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion written of several atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic bond is formed through the transport of one or more valence electrons, generally from a metal to a non-metal, which produces a cation and also an anion that room bound together by one attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and are solids at common temperatures and pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride decision lattice


The fee on the cations and anions is established by the variety of electrons compelled to achieve stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic composition is then identified by the need that the resulting link be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to obtain an ionic compound, we first note the digital configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In stimulate to attain noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to lose its 2 valence electrons, if the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, requires one added electron to fill its outer shell. Therefore, because that the resulting compound to be neutral, two bromine anions must integrate with one magnesium cation to type magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any type of ratio of 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will satisfy the two demands above, the formula because that ionic compounds is frequently presented together the empirical formula, or the most basic whole-number proportion of atom with confident integers.

Note that the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written kind and in formulas. In the written form, while the cation surname is typically the very same as the element, the suffix that single-atom anions is changed to –ide, together in the case of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that suffix can vary, yet is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of sodium phosphate and also calcium nitrite, relying on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– integrate to type LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– combine to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- integrate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- incorporate to kind Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- combine to form Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and PO43- combine to form (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– integrate to form KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the finish transfer of valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared in between the ingredient atoms, an interpretation all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is identified by the family member electronegativities of the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent shortcut that has actually a partial ionic personality to it, together a result of the distinction in electronegativity in between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the tendency of one atom to tempt electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are frequently classified through the bonds between constituent atoms. There room multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are usually presented together the finish loss or obtain of one or much more valence electron from a metal to a nonmetal, causing cations and anions the are organized together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of an ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to type LiF.


Example that a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom develops a bond through fluorine, they share a pair the electrons. However, because fluorine is much more highly electronegative than carbon, it attracts that mutual electron pair closer to itself and also thus create an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written over the atoms is offered to show the existence of partial charges. This bond is considered to have qualities of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atom is more complicated than this design illustrates. The bond developed between any kind of two atom is no a completely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have some covalent character since the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The level of ionic versus covalent personality of a bond is established by the distinction in electronegativity in between the ingredient atoms. The larger the difference, the an ext ionic the nature that the bond. In the standard presentation, bonds room designated as ionic once the ionic element is higher than the covalent facet of the bond. Bonds that autumn in between the two extremes, having both ionic and covalent character, space classified together polar covalent bonds. Such bonds are thought of together consisting the partially charged positive and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, this designations room frequently beneficial in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds frequently have greater boiling and also melting points, and also they are also usually an ext soluble in water than covalent compounds.