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bow and arrow, a weapon consists of a stave made of lumber or other elastic material, bent and held in stress by a string. The arrow, a slim wooden tower with a feathered tail, is equipment to the wire by a notch in the end of the shaft and also is drawn earlier until sufficient tension is produced in the bow so that as soon as released it will propel the arrow. Arrowheads have actually been make of shaped flint, stone, metal, and also other difficult materials.

The beginnings of the bow and arrow are prehistoric; bone arrow points dating to 61,000 years ago have been discovered at Sibudu cave in south Africa. The bow served as a main military weapon from old times v the Middle ages in the Mediterranean world and Europe and also for an also longer period in China, Japan, and on the Eurasian steppes. In the climax of Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus’s prowess v the bow is decisive in his combat with Penelope’s suitors. In the Old Testament, Ahab’s fatality is the an outcome of one enemy arrowhead that “struck the king of Israel in between the joints that harness.”

The bow was straightforward in concept, however it represented really sophisticated technology. In that is most simple form, the bow had a...

Explore the strength of the footrest Empire"s army and its mighty archers
Learn around the footrest Empire"s army, which was renowned for its archers.

The armoured infantry of Greece and also Rome generally disdained the bow but were nevertheless frequently beset through skillful opponent archers, particularly those an installed on horseback. The Huns, Seljuq Turks, Mongols, and other individuals of the Eurasian steppes were specifically effective an installed archers, wielding powerful composite recurved bows make of thin laths of lumber stiffened at the rear with strips of horn and also strengthened in ~ the front v glued-on class of cattle sinew. Very powerful, these to be the most formidable missile tools of placed combat until the revolving pistol. In Europe it was the breakthrough of the crossbow, which had actually been well-known in old times but was perfected in the middle Ages, and the English longbow, presented to europe battlefields in the 14th century, that made the arrowhead a formidable battlefield missile. The longbow, which seems to have actually originated in Wales, was as tall together a man and the arrowhead about half that length, the renowned cloth-yard shaft. The bow was organized with outstretched arm and the arrow drawn back to the bowman’s ear. One English archer might shoot six aimed shots a minute, and his effective range was around 200 yards, though an arrowhead could go double as much in the right hands. The crossbow, in contrast, walk not call for the very same physique or training. The crossbow consisted of a quick bow placed horizontally ~ above a share or tiller, through a sear and also trigger to host the string in attracted position, to be released on demand. Much less accurate 보다 the longbow or composite bow in professional hands, crossbows to be highly effective at short and also medium range.

For numerous cultures, the bow’s prominence in warfare has actually been secondary to its worth as a hunting weapon. The phibìc American Indians, the Eskimo, numerous African peoples, and also others provided either the consistent bow or the crossbow in both hunting and war. Some ancient Japanese wooden bows are 8 feet (2.44 metres) in length; the Japanese additionally made smaller sized bows the horn or whalebone. Japanese bows and also quivers (for holding the arrows) were often elaborately decorated and also signed by the craftsman. The natives of the Andaman Islands, in between the Andaman Sea and the only of Bengal, developed very big and wide bows. African bow makers usually produced small bows, partly since ranges in the African tropical were usually short. The Eskimo provided composite bows that wood and bone backed by sinew, comparable to most bows do in Asia. The American Indians’ bows to be made either of hardwood or of timber backed by sinew. Bows have also been do of compositions of numerous materials, such as wood and horn or wood and also metal. Contemporary composite bows space made that laminated wood, plastic, or fibreglass. Cable and also pulleys ~ above the modern-day compound bow boost accuracy and power. Countless sport hunters like the bow come firearms; others hunt v both weapons.

The string, too, might be made of a selection of materials, the requisite gift toughness. Bowstrings have displayed an enormous variety of sport in materials. The English longbow of the Middle eras usually had a cable of linen or hemp, but Turkish and Arab bows were strung v silk and also mohair. Rattan, bamboo, vegetable fibre, and also animal sinew or hide have served in numerous parts that the world.

Arrows have actually exhibited even greater variations. Normally the tower is a single piece, however often two various materials, such as wood and metal, space combined; the arrowhead—of metal, stone, bone, or shell—may it is in affixed by socketing, cementing, or both. Fletches of feather or that substitutes (leaf, piece of leather or fur) are nearly always supplied to stabilize the arrow in flight; arrows with heavy foreshafts, however, may be unfeathered. See also archery.

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