DNA is composed of two strands, that wind about each various other. Each strand has repeating devices of a nitrogenous base, deoxyribose sugar, and also a phosphate group. Tright here are numerous interactions current within a strand also and also between two strands that stabilize the DNA.

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Covalent Bonds (intrastrand also bonds)

Each strand also consists of the following:

Base (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine)Deoxyribose sugarPhosphate group

Tbelow are four bases: Adenine and also Guanine (purines); Cytosine and Thymine (Pyrimidines). Purines have two carbon-nitrogen rings while pyrimidines have a solitary carbon-nitrogen ring. Hence, there are four different nucleotides that can be integrated right into DNA.

Based on which base is attached, the nucleotides are dubbed 2’-deoxyadenosine triphosphate, 2’-deoxycytidine triphosphate, 2’-deoxyguanosine triphosphate, or 2’-deoxythymidine triphosphate. Each of these bases is linked to 1’-carbon of the deoxyribose sugar.

In an unattached and free nucleotide, tbelow is a triphosphate team on the 5’-carbon of the deoxyribose sugar. However, when a nucleotide is integrated into a DNA strand also, it loses two of the phosphate teams and only one phosphate team is included to the DNA strand.

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This addition involves development of a covalent bond referred to as the phosphodiester bond. This is formed between the 5’-phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 3’-OH team of an additional nucleotide creating a sugar-phosphate backbamong DNA.

Hydrogen bonds

The hydrogen bonds between the base pairs develop the double helical structure of DNA. There is no exadjust or sharing of electrons in hydrogen bonds as checked out in covalent or ionic bonds. Hydrogen bonds take place over short distances and have the right to be quickly developed and also damaged. Although individually each hydrogen bond is a lot weaker than the covalent bond, they deserve to stabilize the double helix bereason of their large numbers.

This pairing is exceptionally specific: adenine pairs via thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine. This selective pairing is dubbed ‘complementary base pairing’. A-T pair creates two hydrogen bonds, while C-G pair develops 3. The sugar-phosphate chains develop the backbone of the ladder-favor DNA structure and also these base pairs form the rungs. The width of each of these ‘rungs’ are the same as it entails one purine (A or G) and one pyrimidine (C or T) base.

Stacking interactions

a) Hydrophobic effects

DNA has an amazing plan wherein the non-polar, uncharged bases are current in the inner of the framework, while the negatively charged phosphates are present on the outside. As the cellular setting is aqueous and polar, the hydrophobic bases in the interior of the helix are retained away from the bordering water and the hydrophilic heads are exposed and also connect with the exterior water. This residential or commercial property increases the solubility of DNA in water.

b) Van der Waals forces

The nitrogenous bases stacked upon one one more are spaced based upon their van der Waals distance. Van der Waals distance is the distance at which two molecules are attracted to each other. If this distance reduces, the electrons of the two molecules might overlap leading to repulsion. These pressures are extremely distance dependent and also are inversely proportional to the sixth power of distance (r6 ). Although a solitary van der Waals interaction has actually a very little effect on the as a whole framework of DNA, the net impact of several interactions result in considerable stcapacity.

c) Ionic interactions

The electrostatic (ion-ion) repulsion of the negatively charged phosphates on the outside can make DNA possibly very unsecure. However before, magnesium ions (Mg2+) and also cationic proteins together with arginine and also lysine residues interact through the negatively charged teams in the DNA and stabilize it.

The strength and stability of DNA stacking interactions has been scientifically showed by demonstrating that the usage of compounds (urea, formamide) that interfere via hydrogen bonds carry out not separate the strands totally, suggesting the existence of extra pressures at work.


Written by

Dr. Surat P

Dr. Surat graduated through a Ph.D. in Cell Biology and Mechanobiology from the Tata Institute of Fundapsychological Research (Mumbai, India) in 2016. Prior to her Ph.D., Surat stupassed away for a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in Zoology, throughout which she was the recipient of an Indian Academy of Sciences Summer Fellowship to research the proteins affiliated in AIDs. She produces function short articles on a large selection of topics, such as clinical ethics, data manipulation, pseudoscience and superstition, education, and huguy evolution. She is passionate around scientific research interaction and also writes write-ups covering all areas of the life sciences.

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