The content that complies with is the problem of great 8. In this lecture we cover the Mole and also Avagadro\"s Number as well as the calculations because that Molar Mass and also conversions using moles.

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The MOLE (mol) is a unit of measurement the is the quantity of a pure problem containing the same number of tennis2007.orgical systems (atoms, molecules etc.) as there are atoms in specifically 12 grams the carbon-12 (i.e., 6.022 X 1023).

So the mole is the title supplied for the quantity 6.022 x 1023 much the same method the indigenous \"dozen\" is offered for the quantity 12.

So if you had a mole of donuts you would have actually 6.022 x 1023 donuts and a serious stomach ache.

We usage the mole (mol) to stand for the quantity of building materials in tennis2007.orgistry since the number of atoms and molecules in each substance is for this reason large. The value given 6.022 x 1023 is dubbed Avagadro\"s number for the scientist that discovered the number of atoms in 12 grams that carbon 12. Why usage 12 grams? This is the theoretical atom mass that the Carbon-12 isotope (6 protons and also 6 neutrons). This way that the atom mass or atomic weight (12 grams) that carbon is equal to specifically 1 mole that carbon.

Using carbon as a reference, the atom weights you view in the routine table are also equal to one mole that those substances: Lithium because that instance has actually an atomic mass of 6.941 grams and also this is equal to one mole the lithium. This is why us state the atomic and also molecular masses in units of grams per mole or g/mol.

What deserve to we perform with moles? We use the unit to make calculations based on balanced tennis2007.orgical equations. We usage the stoichiometry (fancy method of saying mole ratios in an equation) to make predictions about how much product will be do or reactant needed if we know one mole amount in a reaction.

### Moles the a Substance and also the molecular Weight

The Molar massive or Molecular load (interchangeable state so long as we room on Earth) that a substance is the total of all the individual masses that the facets it contains. To usage our old girlfriend water as an example:

One mole that Water is composed of 1 mole that Oxygen and two mole of Hydrogen. The mass of oxygen equal to one mole of oxygen is 15.998 grams and also the massive of one mole the hydrogen is 1.008 g. If we full up the gram amounts of each element in the water molecule = 15.998g/mol + 2(1.008g/mol) we acquire the molar fixed of water = 18.014g/mol.

So if we had exactly 18.014g the water we would have 1 mole that water.

### Mole Relationships

The reason the mole is so essential is due to the fact that we usage the mole together the unit for many of the relationship in tennis2007.orgistry. Reaction are well balanced based ~ above the number of moles the each facet in the reaction, equipment concentrations are very often described in regards to moles every liter or moles per kg that solvent and we have currently seen that the molecules or atom of an facet are reported as moles of the substance rather than the individual count of your particles.

Let\"s begin the relationship conversation with the relationship in between the mole and the AMU.

An AMU is 1/12 the fixed of a Carbon-12 atom which follow to the routine table weighs ~12g. This way that 1 AMU ≈ 1g right? and thus Carbon has actually a massive of 12amu, correct? however wait, this could not be the mass of a solitary carbon atom right? They space really, really tiny. And also that is correct, the mass presented in the regular table is in reality the mass of 6.022 x 1023 carbon atom or a mole that carbon atoms. For this reason in reality, 1 AMU = 1.66 x 10-24g and while a carbon atom weighs 12 AMU, the mass displayed in the periodic table is

### 12 atoms x 1.66 x 10-24g x 6.022 x 1023 atoms/ mol= 12 g/mol

So a single carbon atom weighs 12 amu while a mole of carbon atoms weighs 12.01g/mol.

## Mole Calculations

There space plethora the calculations that can be performed using the unit that moles as the intermediate. I am walking to review a few of lock now and then you will view as we development through later topics that moles are important to those calculations together well.

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Typical mole calculations:

1) Calculation of the Molecular weight or Molar mass of a compound

The molar fixed of a compound likewise often referred to as the molecular load while top top Earth, is merely the sum of all the individual aspect masses in the compound. You usage the periodic table together a reference for this masses and also total them up:

For example, if we desire to full the molar mass of Aluminum Sulfate Al2(SO4)3 , we require to determine the number and also mass the each aspect in the compound. Because that Aluminum Sulfate the totals are 2 Al, 3 S and also 12 O. So below is the math utilizing the atomic masses provided in the periodic table:

### 2(26.98 g/mol) + 3( 32.07 g/mol) + 12(16.00 g/mol) = 342.17 g/mol

2) Conversion indigenous Grams to moles or mole to Grams

Once you recognize the molar massive of a compound, you deserve to use the mass to identify the quantity of mole in a gram lot of the substance or vice versa, you have the right to calculate the variety of grams in a mole lot of the substance.

Here space some examples:

How countless moles room in 55.4g that Aluminum Sulfate?

The calculation is set up prefer a conversion with the molar mass of Aluminum Sulfate together the counter factor:

### 55.4g Al2(SO4)3 x 1 mol Al2(SO4)3/342.17 g Al2(SO4)3 = 0.162 mol Al2(SO4)3

Or, How countless grams the Al2(SO4)3 are in 6.34 mole of Al2(SO4)3?

### 6.34 mol Al2(SO4)3 x 342.17g Al2(SO4)3/ 1 mol Al2(SO4)3 = 2.17 x 103 Al2(SO4)3

3) Conversion to molecule or Atoms

In addition to gift a unit for molar mass, the mole is additionally the gateway between the fixed of a substance and also its atom or molecules.

For Example, if request how countless molecules of Al2(SO4)3 are in th 55.4 g of Al2(SO4)3 above we just need to very first calculate the variety of moles together before and also then usage Avagadro\"s number to convert the moles to molecules:

### 9.76 x 1022 Molecules Al2(SO4)3

Furthermore if we continued the problem and asked how countless Aluminum atoms to be in the 55.4 g of Al2(SO4)3?

Well the is a an easy continuation. We just need to multiply by the variety of atoms that Aluminum in the compound:

### 9.76 x 1022 Molecules Al2(SO4)3 x 2 atoms Al/ 1 molecule Al2(SO4)3 = 1.95 x 1023 Al atoms

Let\"s practice some more: