The Situation: Quagga and also zebra mussels are aquatic invasive species that are aboriginal to eastern Europe. The quagga mussel originated from Dnieper flow drainage that Ukraine. The zebra mussel was an initial described from the lakes of south east Russia and also its herbal distribution also includes the Black and Caspian Seas. Quagga and also zebra mussels gain their typical names from the zebra-type striping top top the shells. Both mussel species are small and generally grow come the dimension of a fingernail. They are prolific breeders and these mussels can connect to both hard and also soft surface in freshwater ways.You space watching: What are quagga mussels cichlid and also mollusks instances of


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Zebra mussels have a long history of invasion and have successfully created in an excellent Britain (1824), The Netherlands (1827), The Czech Republic (1893), Sweden (1920), Italy (1973), the an excellent Lakes in the USA (1988), and California (2008). Quagga mussels were very first found in the USA in the good Lakes in 1989, Nevada in 2007, and also California in 2008. Ballast water discharge indigenous transoceanic ships is believed to it is in responsible for the lengthy distance spread out of zebra and also quagga mussels from their original house ranges in east Europe. Brief distance spread between fresh waterways within nations most likely occurs via the motion of to chat boats. This wake up when boats are no cleaned and dried adequately and also contaminated watercraft are then moved from infested waterways to pristine water bodies wherein mussels room accidentally introduced. This mussels deserve to survive for 3-5 days out of water without enduring lethal desiccation.

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Where quagga and also zebra mussels co-exist, quagga mussels show up to outcompete zebra mussels, and quagga mussels can colonize come depths better than those accomplished by zebra mussels and also are an ext tolerant of cooler water temperatures. Because that example, in Lake Michigan, zebra mussels comprised 98.3% the mussels in 2000, through 2005 quagga mussels represented 97.7% of accumulated mussels. Zebra mussels were discovered at densities of about 899 every square meter, however quagga mussels now conquer at 7,790 mussels every square meter. Quagga mussels have been discovered at depth of approximately 540 feet in Lake Michigan where they filter feeding year round.Consequently, quagga mussels may end up being the much more problematic the these 2 mussel species in California.The Problem: Quagga and zebra mussel invasions have had actually catastrophic results in the ecosystems in i beg your pardon they have established. These organisms clog water intake structures (e.g., pipes and screens), which considerably increases maintenance costs for water treatment and also power plants. Recreational tasks on lakes and also rivers room adversely affected as mussels accumulate top top docks, buoys, boat hulls, anchors, and also beaches can end up being heavily encrusted.

The shells that both mussel varieties are sharp and also can cut people, which forces the put on of shoes as soon as walking along infested beaches or end rocks. Mussels adhering to watercraft hulls deserve to increase drag, influence boat steering, and also clog engines, all of which have the right to lead to overheating and engine malfunctions. Ecological difficulties also an outcome from mussel invasions. Zebra and also quagga mussels can kill native freshwater mussels in two ways: (1) attachment to the shells of native species can kill them, and also (2) this invasive types can outcompete aboriginal mussels and other filter feeding invertebrates for food. This problem has been particularly acute in some locations of the USA that have a an extremely rich diversity of aboriginal freshwater mussel species.

The encrusting of lake and river bottoms have the right to displace aboriginal aquatic arthropods that require soft sediments for burrowing. In the great Lakes this had actually lead to the fallen of amphipod populations that fish depend on for food and also the health and wellness of fish populations has been severely affected.

These mussels have actually been linked with avian botulism outbreaks in the great Lakes which have actually caused the mortality of 10s of hundreds of birds. Due to the fact that of your filter feeding habit, it has been approximated that this mussels have the right to bioaccumlate essential pollutants in their tissues by as much as 300,000 times when contrasted to concentration in the water in i beg your pardon they are living. Consequently, these pollutants have the right to biomagnify as they are passed increase the food chain when contaminated mussels are eaten by predators (e.g., fish and crayfish), who subsequently are eaten by other organisms (e.g., recreational fishermen who eat contaminated fish.) High mussel populations can increase water acidity and also decrease concentrations of liquified oxygen.

Interestingly, invasions by quagga and also zebra mussels have actually been recorded as having actually some confident affects top top receiving ecosystems. For example, filtration that water by mussels together they extract food clears particulate matter. This filtration has improved water clarity, and reduced the eutrophication of polluted lakes. In some instances these enhancements may have benefited neighborhood fishing industries. Conversely, improved water clarity enables penetration of light to greater depths i m sorry can transform the species composition of aquatic plant communities and also associated ecosystems. This improved water high quality is assumed to assist algal blooms that obtain washed ashore where they rot do recreational beaches unusable. Further, the highly efficient removal of phytoplankton can deprive other aquatic species of food.

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 Invasion success in some areas of California might be impacted by water chemistry. Waterways roughly the Sierra Nevada mountains may have actually insufficient calcium (an element needed for shell growth) and also some lakes in northeast California might be as well salty because that mussel survival. However, the general consensus is that most freshwater ways in California will certainly be accommodating to zebra and also quagga mussels.See more: How countless Protons and Neutrons walk Potassium have ? Potassium (K)

Economic impact and Management: Zebra and quagga mussel invasions produce an immense financial burden since of the have to continuously and proactively manage this pests. It has been approximated that it prices over $500 million (US) per year to regulate mussels at strength plants, water systems, and industrial complexes, and also on boats and also docks in the good Lakes. Similar yearly management expenses are anticipated because that California. Because that example, a current estimate (2009) by the military Corps of designers indicates that quagga mussels can cause annual loses that $22 million come the Lake Tahoe region should they establish there. The report details potential damages to tourism, diminished property values, and also increased maintain costs. Administration of problem mussel populations might be completed in different ways in California. Water attract downs in canals and also aqueducts can be provided to death mussels by dry them out. Prisoner such as chlorine and also copper sulfate which are toxic come quagga and also zebra mussels could be to work under specific conditions.