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As beforehand as September 1861, the CSA began issuing national currency, promising to pay the bearer the confront amount — 6 months after ~ the ratification the a tranquility treaty.

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Within job of the fall of fort Sumter, four much more states joined the Confederacy: Virginia, phibìc Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The battle lines were currently drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in practically every way. Practically 21 million world lived in 23 north states. The South claimed just 9 million people — consisting of 3.5 million servants — in 11 confederate states. Regardless of the North"s higher population, however, the South had actually an army virtually equal in size during the an initial year of the war.

The North had actually an huge industrial advantage as well. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the commercial capacity of the Union. Yet that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North produced 97 percent of the country"s firearms, 96 percent that its rail locomotives, 94 percent that its cloth, 93 percent the its pig iron, and over 90 percent that its boots and also shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads every square mile. There was not also one rifleworks in the whole South.


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The south was at a significant disadvantage once it involved manufacturing, however the Confederacy controlled to store its guns firing by developing ammunition from melted-down bells indigenous churches and town squares.

All that the major ingredients the gunpowder were imported. Since the North controlled the navy, the seas to be in the hand of the Union. A blockade could suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and willpower.

The South can produce all the food it needed, though transferring it to soldiers and also civilians was a major problem. The South additionally had a an excellent nucleus that trained officers. 7 of the eight army colleges in the country were in the South.

The South likewise proved come be really resourceful. By the end of the war, it had developed armories and foundries in number of states. They built huge gunpowder mills and melted down thousands of church and plantation bells for bronze to develop cannon.

The South"s best strength place in the truth that it was fighting on the defensive in its very own territory. Acquainted with the landscape, Southerners can harass northern invaders.

The military and political missions of the Union were much more difficult to accomplish. The Union had to invade, conquer, and also occupy the South. It had actually to damage the South"s capacity and will to withstand — a formidable difficulty in any type of war.


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"We had the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I can get because that my guys was salt and also hard crackers. I made the convalescents shoot squirrels, soil hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys through which to do soup because that the men." -from the memoirs the Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners took pleasure in the initial benefit of morale: The southern was fighting to preserve its way of life, conversely, the North to be fighting to maintain a union. Enslavement did not become a moral reason of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many crucial questions were still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware had actually joined the Confederacy? What if brother or France had concerned the help of the South? What if a few decisive early Confederate victories had turned north public opinion versus the war?

Indeed, the north looked much much better on paper. Yet many components undetermined in ~ the outbreak of war can have tilted the balance sheet towards a different outcome.