define radioactivity. Explain a radioisotope. Describe how radioactivity involves a change in the nucleus of a radioisotope. Define the features of the develops of radiation. Describe and write equations because that the primary types of radioactive decay.

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Marie Curie (1867 - 1934) to be a polish scientist that pioneered research right into nuclear radiation (Figure (PageIndex1)). She to be awarded the Nobel compensation in physics in 1903 in addition to her husband Pierre and Antoine Henri Becquerel for their work-related on radioactivity. She was awarded a 2nd Nobel prize in 1911, this time in tennis2007.orgistry, for her continued research on radioactive elements. In this lesson, you will learn around radioactivity, the factors why specific elements and also isotopes space radioactive, and also the most common types of radioactive decay processes.

Figure (PageIndex1): Marie Curie was among the leading scientists in the ar of radioactivity. She uncovered two radiation elements and was awarded 2 Nobel Prizes for she work.

Radioactivity was discovered quite by accident. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was examining the result of specific uranium salts on photographic movie plates. He believed that the salts had actually an result on the movie only when they had been exposed to sunlight. That accidentally discovered that uranium salts that had not been exposed to sunlight still had actually an result on the photographic plates. The Curies, associates that Becquerel in ~ the time, verified that the uranium to be emitting a type of ray that interacted with the film. Marie Curie dubbed this radioactivity. Radioactivity is the spontaneous malfunction of an atom"s cell nucleus by the emissions of corpuscle and/or radiation. Radiation is the emissions of energy through an are in the type of particles and/or waves.

Nuclear reactions are really different from tennis2007.orgistry reactions. In tennis2007.orgistry reactions, atoms become more stable through participating in a transfer of electrons or by sharing electrons with other atoms. In atom reactions, it is the nucleus of the atom the gains security by undergoing a readjust of some kind. Some elements have no secure isotopes, which means that any kind of atom of that facet is radioactive. For some other elements, only details isotopes are radioactive. A radioisotope is one isotope that an element that is unstable and undergoes radioactive decay. The energies that room released in atom reactions are countless orders that magnitude greater than the energies associated in tennis2007.orgistry reactions. Unlike tennis2007.orgistry reactions, atom reactions space not noticeably impacted by alters in eco-friendly conditions, such as temperature or pressure.

The exploration of radioactivity and also its results on the nuclei of aspects disproved Dalton"s presumption that atoms are indivisible. A nuclide is a term for an atom with a specific number of protons and also neutrons in that nucleus. Together we will see, once nuclides of one kind emit radiation, they are readjusted into various nuclides. Radioactive degeneration is spontaneous and does not compelled an entry of energy to occur. The stability of a specific nuclide counts on the ingredient of the nucleus, consisting of the number of protons, the variety of neutrons, and also the proton-to-neutron ratio.

### The band of Stability

Carbon-12, with six protons and also six neutrons, is a secure nucleus, definition that that does not spontaneously emit radioactivity. Carbon-14, with six protons and eight neutrons, is unstable and naturally radioactive. Among atoms with reduced atomic numbers, the ideal proportion of neutron to proton is approximately 1:1. Together the atomic number increases, the secure neutron-proton ratio progressively increases to around 1.5:1 for the heaviest well-known elements. For example, lead-206 is a stable nucleus that consists of 124 neutrons and also 82 protons, a ratio of 1.51 come 1.

This monitoring is shown in the number below. The band of stability is the selection of secure nuclei ~ above a graph the plots the variety of neutrons in a nuclide against the number of protons. known stable nuclides are displayed with individual blue dots, when the 1:1 and 1.5:1 ratios are presented with a hard red line and also a eco-friendly line, respectively.

Figure (PageIndex2): A graph that the variety of neutrons in a nucleus together a duty of the number of protons. Each well-known stable cell nucleus is stood for by a blue dot. The right neutron come proton ratio alters from 1:1 for light nuclei to 1.5:1 because that the most difficult nuclei.

It have to be noted that just because a cell core is "unstable" (able to experience spontaneous radioactive decay) walk not average that it will promptly decompose. For example, uranium-238 is unstable because it spontaneously decays over time, yet if a sample that uranium-238 is enabled to sit because that 1000 years, only (0.0000155\%) that the sample will have decayed. However, other unstable nuclei, such together berkelium-243, will be almost completely gone (>(99.9999\%) decayed) in less than a day.

Unstable nuclei spontaneously emit radiation in the kind of particles and also energy. This generally changes the variety of protons and/or neutron in the nucleus, causing a much more stable nuclide. A nuclear reaction is a reaction the affects the cell core of one atom. One form of a atom reaction is radioactive decay, a reaction in i beg your pardon a cell core spontaneously disintegrates right into a slightly lighter nucleus, accompanied by the emission of particles, energy, or both. An example is displayed below, in which the cell nucleus of a polonium atom radioactively decays right into a lead nucleus.

Note that in a well balanced nuclear equation, the amount of the atom numbers (subscripts) and the amount of the mass numbers (superscripts) must be same on both sides of the equation. Recall the notation system for isotopes, which reflects both the atomic number and also mass number together with the tennis2007.orgical symbol.

Because the variety of protons transforms as a an outcome of this nuclear reaction, the identification of the element changes. Transmutation is a readjust in the identification of a nucleus together a an outcome of a adjust in the number of protons. Over there are number of different species of naturally arising radioactive decay, and also we will research each separately.

### Alpha Decay

An alpha particle (left( alpha ight)) is a helium nucleus with two protons and also two neutrons. Alpha particles room emitted during some varieties of radioactive decay. The net charge of one alpha bit is (2+), and also its massive is around (4 : extamu). The symbol for an alpha fragment in a atom equation is normally (ce^4_2He), though sometimes (alpha) is used. Alpha decay commonly occurs for very heavy nuclei in i m sorry the nuclei space unstable early to large numbers of nucleons. For nuclei the undergo alpha decay, their stability is enhanced by the subtraction of two protons and also two neutrons. Because that example, uranium-238 decays into thorium-234 through the emission of an alpha fragment (see number below).

Figure (PageIndex3): The stormy uranium-238 cell core spontaneously decays into a thorium-234 nucleus by emitting an alpha particle.

## Beta Decay

Nuclei above the tape of stability space unstable because their neutron come proton proportion is as well high. To decrease the ratio, a ghost in the cell nucleus is qualified of turning into a proton and also an electron. The electron is instantly ejected in ~ a high speed from the nucleus. A beta fragment (left( eta ight)) is a high-speed electron emitted from the nucleus of one atom during some type of radioactive decay (see figure below). The symbol because that a beta particle in an equation is either (eta) or (ce^0_-1e). Carbon-14 experience beta decay, transmutating right into a nitrogen-14 nucleus.

Note the beta degeneration increases the atom number by one, yet the mass number continues to be the same.

Figure (PageIndex4): The beta decay of a carbon-14 nuclide requires the switch of a neutron to a proton and an electron, through the electron being emitted indigenous the nucleus.

### Summary of atom Radiation

The table listed below summarizes the main species of atom radiation, consisting of charge, mass, symbol, and also penetrating power. Penetrating power refers to the relative capability of the radiation to pass through usual materials. Radiation with high penetrating power is potentially much more dangerous since it deserve to pass v skin and do moving damage.

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Table (PageIndex1) Summary of types of nuclear radiation.TypeSymbolMass numberChargePenetration PowerShielding
Alpha particle (ce^4_2He) or ( alpha ) 4 (2+) Low Paper, skin
Beta particle (ce^0_-1e) or ( eta ) 0 (1-) Moderate Heavy cloth, plastic
Positron (ce^0_1e) or ( eta^+ ) 0 (1+) Moderate Heavy cloth, plastic
Gamma ray (gamma) or (^0_0gamma) 0 0 High Lead, concrete
Neutron (ce^1_0n) 1 0 High Water, lead
the spontaneous process through which unstable nuclei emit radiation is called