Data procesing refers come the transformating raw data into coherent output.
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Data can be excellent manually making use of a pen and also paper, mechanically using straightforward devices eg typewritter or electronically utilizing modern documents processing toolseg computers Data collection entails getting the data/facts needed for processing from the point of its origin to the computer
Data Input- the accumulated data is converted into machine-readable form by an input device, and also send right into the machine.
Processing is the transformation the the entry data come a more meaningful form (information) in the CPU
Output is the production of the required information, which may be input in future.
The difference in between data collection and data capture.
Data capture is the procedure of obtaining data in a computer-sensible form for at the allude of beginning (the source document itself is all set in a machine-sensible type for input)
Data collection involves getting the original data come the ‘processing centre’, transcribing it, convert it indigenous one tool to another, and finally getting it right into the computer.
Relevance that the term rubbish in garbage out (GIGO) in referral to errors in data processing.
The accuracy the the data gotten in in the computer directly identify the accuracy of the information given out.
Give and explain two transcription and also two computational errors committed throughout data processing.
Misreading errors: -they take place when the user reads source paper incorrectly, for this reason entering wrong values, e.g. A user may confuse 5 in the number 586 with S, and form S86 instead.
Transposition errors: - they result from incorrect plan of personalities (i.e., putting personalities in the wrong order specifically when keying data ~ above a diskette), e.g. The user may go into 396 instead of 369 computational errors
Overflow errors: -An overflow occurs if the result from a calculation is too large to fit in the allocated memory space, e.g., if the allocated memory an are is maybe to store an 8-bit character, then an overflow will happen if the result of the calculation offers a 9-bit number.UnderflowTruncation: 0.784969 784Rounding error:30.6666 7Algorithm or ,logical errors
Data integrity refers to the dependability, timeliness, availability, relevance, accuracy & completeness that data/informationThreats come data integrity
Human error, even if it is malicious or unintentional.Transfer errors, including unintended alterations or data compromise during transfer from one machine to another.Bugs, viruses/malware, hacking, and also other cyber threats.Compromised hardware, such together a maker or disc crash.
Ways of minimizing dangers to data integrity.Backing increase the data on external storage mediaEnforcing security actions to control accessibility to dataUsing error detection & mediate software as soon as transmitting dataDesigning user interfaces the minimize possibilities of invalid data gift entered.DATA processing METHODS
Data handling methods
1. Manual Data Processing
In manual data processing, data is handle manually without utilizing any an equipment or tool to get forced results. In hands-on data processing, all the calculations and logical operations space performed manually on the data. Similarly, data is transferred manually from one place to another. This technique of data handling is an extremely slow and also errors may happen in the output. Mostly, is processed manually in many little business firms as well as government workplaces & institutions. In an educational institute, because that example, clues sheets, fees receipts, and also other financial calculations (or transactions) are performed by hand. This technique is avoided as far as feasible because that the really high probability the error, labor extensive and an extremely time consuming. This kind of data processing forms the an extremely primitive phase when modern technology was not easily accessible or the was no affordable. With the advancement in an innovation the suspended on hand-operated methods has significantly decreased.
2. Mechanical Data Processing
In mechanical data processing method, data is processed by utilizing different devices like typewriters, mechanically printers or various other mechanical devices. This technique of data handling is quicker and an ext accurate than hands-on data processing. This are quicker than the hand-operated mode but still develops the early stages the data processing. Through invention and evolution that more complex machines with better computing power this form of processing additionally started fading away. Check boards and also printing push use mechanical data processing tools frequently.
3. Electronic Data Processing
Electronic data processing or EDP is the modern an approach to procedure data. The data is processed with computer; Data and collection of instructions are provided to the computer system as input and also the computer automatically processes the data according to the given collection of instructions. The computer is additionally known as electronic data processing machine.
This technique of handling data is an extremely fast and also accurate. For example, in a computerized education and learning environment outcomes of college student are ready through computer; in banks, accounts of customers are preserved (or processed) through computer systems etc.
a. Batch Processing
Batch processing is a an approach where the info to be arranged is sorted into teams to enable for efficient and also sequential processing. Online processing is a an approach that utilizes net connections and also equipment directly attached to a computer. The is used largely for details recording and also research. Real-Time handling is a an approach that has actually the capability to respond virtually immediately to miscellaneous signals in order to obtain and procedure information. Distributed Processing is commonly utilized by remote workstations associated to one big central workstation or server. ATMs are good examples of this data processing method.
b. Online Processing
This is a an approach that utilizes net connections and equipment directly attached come a computer. This enables for the data save in one place and also being used at altogether various place. Cloud computer can be considered as a example which supplies this form of processing. It is used mainly for details recording and research.
c. Real-Time Processing
This technique has the capacity to respond almost immediately to various signals in order to obtain and process information. These involve high maintainance andupfront price attributed to an extremely advanced modern technology and computer power. Time saved is preferably in this instance as the calculation is watched in genuine time. For instance in banking transactions example of genuine time processingAirline reservation systemsTheatre (cinema) bookingHotel reservationsBanking systemsPolice enquiry systemsChemical processing plantsHospitals to monitor the development of a patientMissile manage systemsAdvantagesProvides up-to-date informationThe details is readily easily accessible for prompt decision-makingProvides much better services to users/customers.Fast &reliableReduces circulation of hardcopies.
DisadvantagesRequire complex Os & are very expensiveNot straightforward to developReal time systems usually usage 2 or much more processors to share the workloads, i m sorry is expensive.Require large communication equipment.
d. Distributed Processing
This method is typically utilized by remote workstations linked to one big main workstation or server. ATMs are good examples the this data processing method. All the end machines operation on a fixed software located at a specific place and makes use of precisely same information and also sets the instruction.The Differentiate between CPU bound jobs and also I/O bound jobs.
CPU tied jobs require much more of the CPU time to process these jobs. Most of the work the I/O gadgets perform is top top the Input; and also Output; hence, they call for very tiny CPU time.
Most providers are now shifting indigenous the use of geographically distributed an individual computers. This technique of data processing is well-known as Distributed Data handling (DDP)
Three computing resources that have the right to be distributed.
-CPU (Processors) time
-Computer handling power
-Memory (computer storage)
- Input/Output devices, e.g. Printers
-communication devices/communication port
Examples the industries and business organizations that broadly use distributed processing systems.BanksComputerized retails stores, e.g. SupermarketsLearning institutions with numerous departmental officesBureaus or communication cyber cafesAirline preventive systems
Benefits and three risks that might be associated with the spread data handling system.
The pack on the host computer system is considerably reducedThe use of low cost minicomputers minimizes the expense in data processingDelays in data handling are reducedProvides far better services come the customersThere is less risk in situation of system breakdownThe design & implementation the the system is less complex due come decentralizationThe level that expertise required is less.
RisksData duplication is very commonProgramming troubles occur through microcomputers & minicomputersSecurity threats, i.e. The data & information sent one the network native one ar toanother have the right to be tapped, or listened come by not authorised partiesMore maintain is required for the customers involvedIt is expensive as result of the extra cost of communication equipment.
The principle of multi-programming
A Multi-programming system allows the user to operation 2 or much more programs, all of which are in the computer’s key memory, in ~ the same time.
Benefits the are acquired from multi-programmingIt rises productivity the a computerReduces the CPU’s idle timeReduces the incidence the peripheral bound operation
benefits of save on computer data in computer files end the manual filing mechanismStored details takes up much less spaceEasier to update and modifyProvides faster access and retrieval of dataReduces duplication the data or save on computer recordsCheaperEnhances data truth (i.e. Accuracy and completeness)
The difference between logical and also physical computer system files.
A logical paper is perceived in regards to what data items the contains and also what handling operations may be performed on the data
A physical document is regarded in state of exactly how the data items found in a paper are arranged on the warehouse media and also how they deserve to be processed.
species the following materials of the info system data pecking order in ascending bespeak of complexity:
Field, Database, Byte, Record, Bit, and paper
Bit Byte ar Record file Database
TYPES OF computer system FILES
i) Report file- It contains a collection of reasonably permanent records extracted native the data in a understand file.
They are supplied to prepare reports, which have the right to ve published at a later on date, e.g. Report ~ above student’s course performance in the term, extract of student who have actually not cleared their school fees, report ~ above absenteesii) Backup file- supplied to back-up data or to host duplicate duplicates of data/information indigenous the computer’s addressed storage or main file for protection purposes e.g. A copy of all the student admitted in a institution fees, report on absentees
iii) Reference file - offered for referral purposes. It has records that are fairly permanent or semi-permanent, e.g. Deductions in caution money, fairy rates, tax deductions, employees address, price lists etc.iv) sort file – offered to sort/rank data follow to a provided order, e.g. Ranking position in a class of students.v) Transaction document - Is supplied to host input data throughout transaction processing. It is later on used to update understand files and audits daily, weekly or monthly transaction.FILE organisation METHODS
What is file organization?It is the method records are arranged (laid out) in ~ a particular document or any an additional storage maker in a computerRefers come the means data is save on computer in a fileFile company is important because it determines the technique of access, efficiency, flexibility and also storage tools to it is in used.
Methods of file organizationi) Sequential and serial
In sequential record organization, documents are save in a sorted order making use of a
key field, while in serial; the documents are stored in the order they come into the file, and also are no sorted in any type of way.ii) Random and indexed-sequential
In random file organization, documents are save on computer in the paper randomly and also accessed directly, while in indexed –sequential, the records are save sequentially yet accessed directly using one index.
iii) serial file organization
Records space in a record are stored and accessed one after another on a storage mediumiv) indexing sequencial document organization method
Similar to sequential method, only that an table of contents is provided to allow the computer system to situate individual records on the storage media.
ELECTRONIC DATA processing MODESThis is the methods in which a computer under the affect of an operating system is draft to procedure data ega) Batch processing is the execution the a collection of work in a program on a computer without manual treatment (non-interactive). Strictly speaking, the is a handling mode: the execution that a series of programs every on a collection or \"batch\" of inputs, rather than a single entry (which would instead be a custom job). However, this distinction has mainly been lost, and also the collection of steps in a batch procedure are often referred to as a \"job\" or \"batch job\".
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Batch processing has these benefits:=It can change the time of job processing to once the computing resources are much less busy.It stays clear of idling the computer resources through minute-by-minute manual intervention and supervision.Rather than running one routine multiple times to procedure one transaction each time, batch processes will operation the routine only as soon as for countless transactions, reducing mechanism overhead.
Disadvantages- Users space unable to end a process during execution, and have to wait until execution completes.b)