Rubrics deserve to be categorized into three wide groups. The first group differentiate generic from task-specific rubrics. The 2nd group differentiate analytic indigenous holistic descriptors of performance. The third group differentiate primary trait from multiple characteristics rubrics.

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Generic and also Task-Specific Rubrics

Rubrics deserve to be categorized together generic or task-specific. Together is so frequently the instance in assessment, the line between the two categories might overlap developing a mix or hybrid model. Plenty of task-based rubrics room adaptations of generic scales, and many space combinations of generic elements and also elements specific to a certain performance task.

Generic rubrics

Generic rubrics deserve to be applied to a number of different work within a single mode of interaction (Interpersonal, Interpretive, Presentational). ACTFL recommends the following domain names be thought about when designing rubrics because that the three modes of communication: Functions, Contexts/Content, text Type, Language Control, Vocabulary, communication Strategies, cultural Awareness (ACTFL performance Descriptors because that Language Learners). The rubric in figure 1 is a share Interpersonal rubric draft to it is in learner-friendly. Learners have the right to ask themselves the inquiries that will certainly be used to judge your performance in a conversation in ~ the novice level. The inquiries reflect all of the domain names except Contexts/Content which is represented in the choice of topic because that the learner to discuss. This share rubric serves as a overview for novice learners to reference any time they are engaged in an Interpersonal task. They understand the attributes of a strong performance, and also know that they must demonstrate a “strong performance” continuously over multiple novice-level object in order come be considered a solid novice interpersonal communicator.

Task-specific rubrics

Task-specific rubrics are offered with particular tasks, and also their criteria and also descriptors reflect certain features that the elicited performance. Tedick (2002) writes: "While part rubrics are developed in such a method as to be generic in scope because that use v any number of writing or speak tasks, that is best to think about the task first and make sure that the rubric to represent a good fit v the task and your instructional objectives. Just as a range of task-types must be provided in language classrooms, so have to a selection of rubrics and checklists be supplied for assessing power on those tasks" (p. 37). Because that example, this Presentational creating task requires learners to describe a series of pictures to call a story in the past around a visit to the monuments in Paris, France. The rubric (Figure 2) focuses on regulate of previous tenses, usage of story form, and also factual information around the monuments.

Hybrid rubrics that incorporate features that generic and task-specific rubrics are really useful in classroom assessment because they administer feedback to learners on vast dimensions of language production together with their performance on the details competencies and also knowledge targeted by a certain task in ~ a details unit of instruction. Teachers might keep the share language production aspects as they space and readjust one or two categories to emphasis on demands for a particular task. For example, the rubric in figure 3 because that a Presentational writing task contains categories that are generic (used for all composing tasks) and categories that are task-specific. The job is to create a 5-paragraph essay to compare the prominence of biodiversity in France come the united States. In this case, the category of Organization, Vocabulary, Accuracy, and society are aspects that space evaluated in all Presentational creating tasks. In addition to these 4 categories, a fifth category about the usage of a selection of authentic sources is added for this task. That is essential to remember that presentational tasks benefit from feedback and also subsequent revisions to achieve a polished product.

Holistic and also Analytic Rubrics

Rubrics may likewise be categorized together holistic or analytic. Holistic rubrics describe the features of a performance to give an in its entirety judgment the the high quality of the performance. An analytic rubric looks at the individual characteristics of a performance and also judges every characteristic separately.

Holistic rubrics:

In holistic evaluation, raters make judgments by developing an all at once impression the a performance and matching it to the best fit from amongst the descriptions on the scale. Each tape on the scale defines performance on several criteria (e.g. Text form + vocabulary + language control). Three or four levels of power are generally found in holistic rubrics. Holistic scales may be one of two people generic or task-specific. Number 4 is a sample of a holistic rubric for a Presentational composing task. Advantages the holistic rubrics:

castle are often written generically and also can be offered with numerous tasks. They conserve time by minimizing the variety of decisions raters should make. Trained raters tend to use them consistently, result in more reliable measurement. Lock are good for summative assessments as they give an overall judgment the performance.

Disadvantages of holistic rubrics:

They execute not provide specific feedback come learners around the strengths and also how to improve performance. Since they lack details details, they are not helpful for developmental assessments.

(Tedick (2002), Mueller (2002), and also (2000-2002).)

Analytic rubrics

Analytic rubrics often combine performance category from a share rubric through categories directly related to a task, such together demonstrating understanding of details lesson content (Moskal, 2000). In practice, the name "analytic rubric" and also "multiple trait rubric" may be provided interchangeably.

performance dimensions commonly found in analysis rubrics encompass the domains in the ACTFL Perfomance Descriptors:

functions Contexts/Content Text form Language control Vocabulary communication strategies cultural Awareness

These rubrics may also include task specific items such as:

Pronunciation and also Intonation creative thinking Effective usage of technology Successful teamwork Evidence of integration that multiple resources of factual information

Figure 5 gift an adaptation of a renowned analytic range for examining ESL creating performance. Explicate this rubric, Tedick (2002) writes: "Note that the scale assigns different weights to various features. This permits a teacher come give more emphasis come content than to grammar or mechanics, because that example. The choice to weigh attributes on the scale represents an advantage to analytic scoring." (p. 35).

Figure 6 mirrors an analytic scale for duty plays and also interviews supplied with student in first-year French process at the university of Minnesota. This rubric can be provided with other languages. In this example, every criteria are weighted equally.

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Advantages of analysis rubrics:

They carry out useful feedback to learner on locations of strength and also weakness. Their dimensions deserve to be weighted come reflect relative prestige of individual criteria.

Disadvantages of analysis rubrics:

lock take an ext time come create and use. There are more possibilities because that raters come disagree. The is more complicated to accomplish intra- and inter-rater integrity on all of the size in an analysis rubric than on a solitary score surrendered by a holistic rubric.

Primary and also Multiple characteristics Rubrics

Rubrics can additionally be categorized as main trait or multiple characteristics rubrics. A primary trait rubric is task-specific and evaluates performance based on only one characteristic. A multiple trait rubric evaluates performance based upon several attributes of a details task.

primary trait rubrics

Primary trait scoring, as occurred by Lloyd-Jones and also Carl Klaus (Lloyd-Jones, 1977) to be designed to advice the major language role or rhetorical characteristics elicited by a offered writing job or prompt. "Primary trait assessment in its initial formulations focused on the particular approach that a writer can take come be effective on a particular writing task; every task forced its own unique scoring guide" (Applebee, 2000, p. 4). In its original form, main trait scoring would be strictly classified together task-specific, and also performance would be evaluated on only one trait, such together the "Persuading an audience" example from Tedick (2002, p. 36) because that a task requiring learners to compose a persuasive letter to the editor that the college newspaper: