Zinc

Element 30 of Periodic table is Zinc with atomic number 30, atomic weight 65.409. Zinc, symbol Zn, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and SlateGray color. Zinc is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Zinc is volatile metals. Know everything about Zinc Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium:its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2.

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Zinc Facts

Read key information and facts about element Zinc

Name Zinc
Atomic Number 30
Atomic Symbol Zn
Atomic Weight 65.409
Phase Solid
Color SlateGray
Classification transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 12
Group Name zinc family
Period in Periodic Table 4
Block in Periodic Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2
Melting Point 419.53 °C
Boiling Point 907 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 2>
CAS Number CAS7440-66-6

How to Locate Zinc on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 30 to find Zinc on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zinc on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trend

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Zinc with other elements

Zinc History

The element Zinc was discovered by India in year 1500 in Germany . Zinc derived its name from the German word Zink

Zinc Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Zinc in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 3e-07
Abundance in Sun 2e-06
Abundance in Meteorites 0.00018
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 7.8e-05
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-7%
Abundance in Humans 3.3e-05

Crystal Structure of Zinc

The solid state structure of Zinc is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
266.49 266.49 494.68 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc
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Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Zinc Atomic and Orbital Properties

Zinc atoms have 30 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 2> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.


Atomic Number 30
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 30
Number of Protons 30
Mass Number 65
Number of Neutrons 35
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 2>
Electron Configuration 3d10 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d10 4s2
Oxidation State -2 1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Zinc - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zinc - neutral Zinc atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Zinc atom is 3d10 4s2. The portion of Zinc configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zinc

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zinc atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2

Atomic Structure of Zinc

Zinc atomic radius is 142 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 131 pm.

Atomic Radius

142 pm (1.42 Å)

Atomic Volume 9.16092436975 cm3
Covalent Radius 131 pm (1.31 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 139 pm
Neutron Cross Section 1.1 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Zinc

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Zinc Chemical Properties: Zinc Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Zinc is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.65
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Zinc

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zinc

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 906.4
2 1733.3
3 3833
4 5731
5 7970
6 1.04×104
7 1.29×104
8 1.68×104
9 1.96×104
10 2.3×104
11 2.64×104
12 29990
13 40490
14 4.38×104
15 4.73×104
16 5.23×104
17 5.59×104
18 5.97×104
19 6.73×104
20 7.12×104
21 1.791×105

Zinc Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Zinc Physical Properties

Density 7.14 g/cm3
Molar Volume 9.16092436975 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 108 GPa
Shear Modulus 43 GPa
Bulk Modulus 70 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.25

Hardness of Zinc - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 412 MPa

Zinc Electrical Properties

Zinc is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Zinc

Electrical Conductivity 1.7×107 S/m
Resistivity 5.9×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.85

Zinc Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 120 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000302 K-1

Zinc Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.21×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.45×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.58e-05

Optical Properties of Zinc

Refractive Index 1.00205

Acoustic Properties of Zinc

Speed of Sound 3.7×103 m/s

Zinc Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zinc

Melting Point 692.68 K (419.53 °C)
Boiling Point 1180 K (907 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.85

Enthalpies of Zinc

Heat of Fusion 7.35 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 119 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Zinc Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zinc

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Zinc has 5 stable isotope - 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 70Zn.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
54Zn
55Zn
56Zn
57Zn
58Zn
59Zn
60Zn
61Zn
62Zn
63Zn
64Zn 48.63% Stable N/A
65Zn
66Zn 27.9% Stable N/A
67Zn 4.1% Stable N/A
68Zn 18.75% Stable N/A
69Zn
70Zn 0.62% Stable N/A
71Zn
72Zn
73Zn
74Zn
75Zn
76Zn
77Zn
78Zn
79Zn
80Zn
81Zn
82Zn
83Zn

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-66-6
RTECS Number RTECSZG8600000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1436
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point 460 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-66-6
CID Number CID23994
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSZG8600000

Compare Zinc with all Group 12 elements

Zinc vs Cadmium Zinc vs Mercury Zinc vs Copernicium

Compare Zinc with all transition metal elements

Zinc vs Scandium Zinc vs Titanium Zinc vs Vanadium Zinc vs Chromium Zinc vs Manganese Zinc vs Iron Zinc vs Cobalt Zinc vs Nickel Zinc vs Copper Zinc vs Yttrium Zinc vs Zirconium Zinc vs Niobium Zinc vs Molybdenum Zinc vs Technetium Zinc vs Ruthenium Zinc vs Rhodium Zinc vs Palladium Zinc vs Silver Zinc vs Cadmium Zinc vs Hafnium Zinc vs Tantalum Zinc vs Tungsten Zinc vs Rhenium Zinc vs Osmium Zinc vs Iridium Zinc vs Platinum Zinc vs Gold Zinc vs Mercury Zinc vs Rutherfordium Zinc vs Dubnium Zinc vs Seaborgium Zinc vs Bohrium Zinc vs Hassium Zinc vs Meitnerium Zinc vs Darmstadtium Zinc vs Roentgenium Zinc vs Copernicium