As a French learner, you probably realize (or will certainly soon realize!) that this defines the French language to a T.
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The exceptions in French simply stretch on and also on.
They have the right to seem almost endmuch less.
You’ll discover them in French song lyrics, while discovering brand-new vocabulary and in some of the most generally provided verbs.
When you start forming the current tense, there are exceptions.
Even once you’re telling civilization what to execute, you have to sheight and think about exceptions periodically.
As you learn and also use more and even more adjectives, you’ll proceed to find…you guessed it, exceptions.
For better or worse, finding out French implies accepting the suractual nature of the language and taking a stroll to Ircontinuous Land also.
So let’s acquire up-close and personal with some exceptional ircontinuous adjectives.
What execute you say?
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So, What Makes a French Adjective Irregular?
French is a language that’s all about agreement. So adjectives in French have to reflect the gender and the quantity of the noun to which they refer.
Usually, making adjectives agree with their topic complies with a regular pattern that revolves roughly the masculine singular adjectival form:The enhancement of an “s” renders a continual adjective masculine and plural.Adding an “e” to a masculine singular adjective makes it feminine.The enhancement of “es” renders an adjective plural and also feminine.
Here’s an instance with the adjective chaud (hot), which is used to modify singular and masculine nouns:
Le four est chaud. (The range is hot.)
To make chaud masculine plural we simply add an “s”:
Les fours sont chauds. (The ovens are warm.)
To make chaud feminine singular, we ssuggest include an “e” to the masculine singular, which gives us:
L’eau est chaude. (The water is warm.)
And lastly, to make it feminine plural, we add “es”:
Les pizzas sont chaudes. (The pizzas are hot.)
So that’s the consistent pattern. Irregular adjectives, on the other hand also, move to the beat of their own drum. Let’s take a look, shall we?
The 4 Types of French Irconstant Adjectives You’ll See Over and also Over Again
Usually speaking, irregular adjectives can be broken up into four broad categories:Adjectives that follow a discernible pattern according to their masculine endings.
2. Adjectives whose form alters entirely between the masculine and also the feminine.
3. Adjectives that reprimary the exact same regardmuch less of the sex of the nouns they modify.
4. Adjectives that are invariable. These have actually a solitary create and they don’t agree with the amount or sex of the nouns through which they’re supplied.
On y va (let’s go)!
1. Irconsistent adjectives through a discernible pattern according to masculine endings
Let’s look at how this type of adjective functions with assorted endings.
-el becomes -elle
Marc est cruel, donc il n’a pas de copine. (Marc is cruel, therefore he does not have a girlfriend.)
Elise est cruelle, donc elle n’a pas de compagnon. (Elise is cruel, therefore she does not have a boyfriend.)
-eil becomes -eille
Il faut que je trouve un fauteuil pareil. (I have to uncover a comparable couch.)
Je n’ai jamais rencontré une fille pareille ! (I’ve never met a girl favor her!)
-il becomes -ille
Sois gentil, Michel ! (Be nice, Michel!)
Sois gentille avec le chien, Alice ! (Be nice to the dog, Alice!)
-on becomes -onne
Le chiot de Manon est mignon ! (Manon’s puppy is cute!)
La fille d’Anna et Serge est mignonne. (Serge and also Anna’s daughter is cute.)
-s becomes -sse
Mon chien est trop gros ; je dois lui donner moins de croquettes. (My dog is as well fat; I need to give him much less kibble.)
J’ai une grosse voiture. (I have actually a substantial automobile.)
-en becomes -enne
Son père est un ancien combattant. (His father is a former soldier.)
Sa mère est une ancienne institutrice. (His mommy is a previous main college teacher.)
-et end up being -ète
Michel est inquiet. Il n’arrive pas à manger. (Michel is worried. He can’t eat.)
Manon est inquiète. Elle n’arrive pas à dormir. (Manon is worried. She can’t sleep.)
-er becomes -ère
Ce manteau est très cher. (This coat is exceptionally expensive.)
Cette robe est très chère. (This dress is exceptionally expensive.)
-eur becomes -euse
Michel est rêveur. (Michel is the dreamy kind.)
Sandrine est rêveuse. (Sandrine is the dreamy type.)
-teur becomes -trice
Mon père est très protecteur. (My father is extremely protective.)
Ma mère est très protectrice. (My mother is incredibly protective.)
-f becomes -ive
Jean-Bernard est sportif. Il court tous les jours. (Jean-Bernard is athletic. He runs every day.)
Aurélie est sportive. Elle nage tous les jours. (Aurélie is athletic. She swims eexceptionally day.)
-c becomes -che
Carole porte un pantalon blanc. (Carole is wearing white pants.)
Brigitte porte une robe blanche. (Brigitte is wearing a white dress.)
-ou becomes -olle
Tu es fou, Jean ! (You’re crazy, Jean!)
Elle est folle. Elle fait trop la fête ! (She is crazy. She parties too much!)
Further irregularity: Fol is the singular masculine create of fou (crazy) that’s provided before singular masculine nouns beginning with a vowel or h muet (unaspirated “h”), as in:
Jean est un fol homme. (Jean is a crazy male.)
In all of the above situations, the plural develop is fairly simple: You simply include an “s.” Let’s continue with the instance of fou:
The masculine plural is fous:
Jean et Marc sont fous. (Jean and also Marc are crazy.)
The feminine plural is folles:
Elles sont folles. (They are crazy.)
An exemption to the plural dominion occurs when the masculine singular develop of the adjective ends in an “x,” in which instance the plural form is specifically the exact same as the masculine singular. A prime example of this occurs with masculine singular adjectives that finish in -eux.
François est heureux. (François is happy.)
François et Nicolas sont heureux. (François and Nicolas are happy.)
The feminine singular ending becomes -euse:
Françoise est heureuse. (Françoise is happy.)
For the feminine plural create, we add an “s” to the feminine singular form:
Françoise et Sarah sont heureuses. (Françoise and Sarah are happy.)
This dominance likewise uses rather often to the adjectives listed below. Onward!
2. Adjectives that adjust entirely according to their gender
Some adjectives have masculine and feminine forms that are completely different from each various other. Let’s take a look at some examples of these that you’re bound to come throughout often.
Beau is the masculine singular for “handsome.” In the feminine singular create, we use belle (beautiful). The masculine plural is beaux and the feminine plural is belles.
Michel est beau. (Michel is handsome.)
Michel et Jean-Bernard sont beaux. (Michel and Jean-Bernard are handsome.)
Mireille est belle. (Mireille est beautiful.)
Mireille et Sarah sont belles. (Mireille and Sarah are beautiful.)
More irregularity: Bel is the singular masculine form of beau that’s offered before singular masculine nouns starting via a vowel or h muet, as in:
Jean est un bel homme. (Jean is a handsome male.)
Doux, which is masculine singular for “soft” or “sweet,” becomes douce when supplied via feminine singular nouns. The masculine plural is doux. (Yes, it’s the very same as the masculine singular! Remember what I said about adjectives that finish through “x.”) The feminine plural develop is douces.
Mon chien a un poil doux. (My dog has a soft coat.)
Les draps sont doux. (The bedsheets are soft.)
Marie a une voix douce. (Marie has actually a sweet voice.)
Faux means “false” or “fake” and it’s provided in conjunction through masculine singular nouns. For feminine singular nouns we use fausse. The masculine plural is faux (again, it’s the very same as the masculine singular!) and we use fausses to refer to feminine plural nouns.
Le rapport de police est faux. (The police report is false.)
Les bijoux de Marie sont faux. (Marie’s jewelry is fake.)
L’hypothèse est fausse. (The hypothesis is false.)
Les allégations sont fausses. (The allegations are false.)
Favori, which means—you guessed it—”favorite,” is a masculine singular adjective. In the company of feminine singular nouns we use favorite. The masculine plural is favoris and the feminine plural is favorites. We just add an “s” in both situations.
Mon sport favori est le tennis. (My favorite sport is tennis.)
Mes sports favoris sont le tennis et le golf. (My favorite sports are tennis and golf.)
L’activité favorite d’Antonin est le coloriage. (Antonin’s favorite task is coloring.)
Les activités favorites de Claire sont la lecture et la natation. (Claire’s favorite activities are analysis and swimming.)
Frais indicates “fresh” or “cool” and we usage it with masculine singular nouns. To describe feminine singular nouns we use fraîche. The masculine plural is the exact same as the masculine singular: frais. Like masculine singular adjectives that end in “x,” those that end in “s” have actually the very same singular and also plural adjectival form. In the company of feminine plural nouns, we use fraîches.
Le vent est frais. (The wind is cool.)
Les légumes sont frais. (The vegetables are fresh.)
L’eau est fraîche. (The water is fresh/cool.)
Les tomates sont fraîches. (The tomatoes are fresh.)
Long means “long” and also it’s offered to modify masculine singular nouns. Longue is provided to modify feminine singular nouns. We add an “s” to the masculine singular to get longs. The feminine plural develop is longues.
Le livre est long. (The book is long.)
Les cheveux de Sarah sont longs. (Sarah’s hair is long.)
L’histoire est longue. (The story is lengthy.)
Michel porte une chemise à manches longues. (Michel is wearing a long-sleeved dress shirt.)
Nouveau, which suggests “new,” is provided through masculine singular nouns, and also nouvelle is the feminine singular form of the adjective. For masculine plural, we add an “x” to the masculine singular to get nouveaux and for the feminine plural we sindicate include an “s” to the feminine singular, leaving us via nouvelles.
Dany kind of Boon a un nouveau film. (Dany type of Boon has actually a brand-new film.)
Marie a une nouvelle voiture. (Marie has a new car.)
Michel a de nouveaux livres. (Michel has actually some brand-new books.)
Michel a de nouvelles chaussures. (Michel has actually brand-new shoes.)
Additional irregularity: Nouvel is the singular masculine create of nouveaux that’s provided prior to singular masculine nouns starting through a vowel or h muet, as in:
Le nouvel hôpital a trois étages. (The brand-new hospital has actually three floors.)
Public implies “public” and also refers to masculine singular nouns, while publique refers to feminine singular nouns. The masculine plural form is publics and also the feminine singular create is publiques.
L’établissement est public. (The facility is public.)
L’école est publique. (The college is public.)
Les établissements sont publics. (The facilities are public.)
Les écoles sont publiques. (The colleges are public.)
Vieux, which means “old,” is used via masculine singular nouns and vieille is the feminine singular form of the adjective. The masculine plural form of the adjective is the exact same as the masculine singular, vieux. For the feminine plural, we include an “s” to gain vieilles.
Le grand-père de Martin est vieux. (Martin’s grandpa is old.)
Les grand-parental fees de Martin sont vieux. (Martin’s grandpaleas are old.)
La grand-mère de Nicolas est vieille. (Nicolas’ grandmom is old.)
Les tantes de Nicolas sont vieilles. (Nicolas’ aunts are old.)
More irregularity: Vieil is the singular masculine create of vieux (old) that’s supplied prior to singular masculine nouns founding through a vowel or h muet, as in:
Le vieil homme est mon voisin. (The old male is my neighbor.)
3. Adjectives that remajor the exact same in their masculine and feminine forms
Some adjectives remajor the very same, regardless of whether they’re editing masculine or feminine nouns. It’s worth noticing that these adjectives end in “e.” When referring to a noun in the plural develop, you ssuggest add an “s.” Facile (easy)!
Here’s a list of some widespread adjectives that you’ll run into where this is the case:calme (calm)difficile (difficult)facile (easy)imaginaire (imaginary)ironique (ironic)mince (slim)minuscule (minuscule)pauvre (poor)propre (clean)ridicule (ridiculous)semblable (similar)sensible (sensitive)sympathique (nice)
4. Invariable adjectives
Color adjectives whose names are acquired from the names of animals, flowers, fruits and also steels are usually invariable.
Here’s a list of those you’re bound to come across:ardoise (slate grey)argent (silver)aubergine (eggplant)brique (brick red)canari (canary yellow)caramel (caramel-colored)chair (flesh-colored)kaki (khaki, which in French is olive green)lavande (lavender)marine (navy blue)marron (brown)ovariety (orange)pastel (pastel)pistache (pistachio-green)platine (platinum)sable (sandy, sand-colored)safran (saffron-colored)saumon (salmon-pink)turquoise (turquoise)
Adjectives that are obtained from various other languages (English and Arabic, for example) are generally invariable, yet don’t be surprised if you periodically watch them agreeing with their linked nouns. Here are some notable ones:ad hoc (ad hoc)a priori (a priori)cheap (poor quality)clean (clean, honest)cool (cool)fun (fun)glamour (glamorous)halal (halal)hi-fi (hi-fi)high-tech (high-tech)kif-kif (very same, identical)lambda (average, typical)light (light, low in calories)relax (peaceful, informal, lassist back)pick (select, high-course, posh)trash (tasteless)top (great)
As you’ve more than likely gathered from your French discovering journey therefore much, practice is a have to.
For drilling ircontinual adjectives right into your brain, referral publications and also quizzes are an excellent combicountry.
Two publications that have good sections on adjectives are “A Comprehensive French Grammar” by Glanville Price and “The Everypoint French Grammar Book: All the Rules You Need to Master Français” by Laura K. Lawless.
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As for quizzes, feel totally free to inspect out tennis2007.org, wright here you can customize the concerns based upon the authentic French content gave on the platform.