L>NOVA Online/Cracking the ice Age/The big Chill
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The large Chill

by Kirk A. Maasch
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During the previous billion years, the Earth"s climatehas fluctuated between warm durations - periodically even fully ice-free - andcold periods, once glaciers scoured the continents. The cold periods - or iceages - space times when the entire earth experiences notably colder climaticconditions. Throughout an ice age, the polar regions are cold, there space largedifferences in temperature from the equator to the pole, and also large,continental-size glaciers can cover huge regions of the earth.Ever since the Pre-Cambrian (600 million year ago), ice eras have occurred atwidely spaced intervals the geologic time - about 200 million years -lasting because that millions, or also tens of millions of years. Because that the Cenozoicperiod, i beg your pardon began about 70 million years ago and continues today, evidencederived from maritime sediments provide a detailed, and reasonably continuous, recordfor climate change. This record shows decreasing deep-water temperature,along with the buildup of continent ice sheets. Much of this deep-watercooling occurred in three significant steps about 36, 15 and 3 million years earlier -the most recent that which proceeds today. Throughout the current ice age, glaciershave advanced and retreated end 20 times, often blanketing north America withice. Ours climate now is in reality a heat interval between these many periodsof glaciation. The many recent period of glaciation, i beg your pardon many human being think ofas the "Ice Age", to be at that height around 20,000 year ago. Return the exact causes for ice ages, and the glacial cycles in ~ them,have no been proven, they space most most likely the an outcome of a complicated dynamicinteraction in between such points as solar output, distance of the earth from thesun, position and height the the continents, s circulation, and also thecomposition the the atmosphere.

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Climatic Cooling from 60 million years earlier to present day

Between 52 and also 57 million years ago, the earth was relatively warm.Tropical conditions actually expanded all the method into the mid-latitudes(around northern Spain or the central United states for example), polar regionsexperienced temperate climates, and the difference in temperature in between theequator and also pole was much smaller than it is today. Certainly it to be so warm thattrees prospered in both the Arctic and Antarctic, and also alligators resided in EllesmereIsland in ~ 78 levels North. Yet this heat period, dubbed the Eocene, was adhered to by a long cooling trend.Between 52 and also 36 million years ago, ice cream caps occurred in eastern Antarctica,reaching under to sea level in some places. Close to Antarctica, thetemperature that the water close to the surface ar dropped to between 5 and also 8 degreesCelsius. Between 36 and 20 million years ago the planet experienced the firstof three significant cooling steps. At this time a continental-scale temperate icesheet arised in eastern Antarctica. Meanwhile, in phibìc America, the meanannual wait temperature dropped by about 12 degrees Celsius. Between 20 and 16 million years ago, there was a quick respite from the bigchill, yet this was adhered to by a second major cooling duration so extreme thatby 7 million years ago southeastern Greenland was completely covered withglaciers, and by 5-6 million year ago, the glaciers to be creeping intoScandinavia and the northern Pacific region. The earth was once an ext releasedfrom the tight of the large chill between 5 and 3 million years ago, when the seawas lot warmer approximately North America and also the Antarctic 보다 it is today.Warm-weather plants prospered in north Europe where now they can not survive,and trees prospered in Iceland, Greenland, and Canada as much north as 82 degreesNorth.We space still in the midst of the third major cooling period that began around 3million year ago, and also its impact can it is in seen around the world, perhaps also inthe advance of our own species. About 2 and a half million year ago,tundra-like conditions took over north-central Europe. Quickly thereafter, theonce-humid environment of main China was replaced by harsh continentalsteppe. And in sub-Saharan Africa, arid and also open grasslands expanded,replacing more wooded, wetter environments. Numerous paleontologists think thatthis environmental readjust is linked to the evolution of humankind.

Possible Explanations for the previous 60 Million year of Cooling

Climate adjust on ultra-long time scale (tens of numerous years) space morethan likely connected to bowl tectonics. Plate motions cause cycles ofocean basin growth and also destruction, well-known as Wilson cycles, involvingcontinental rifting, seafloor-spreading, subduction, and also collision. Severalexplanations of the recent cooling trend that indicate a climate-tectonicconnection room summarized below.

Geographic Distribution and also Size of Continents

Through the course of a Wilson cycle continents collide and also split apart,mountains space uplifted and also eroded, and ocean containers open and also close. There-distribution and an altering size and also elevation of continental land masses mayhave caused climate readjust on long time scales. Computer system climate models haveshown the the climate is an extremely sensitive to an altering geography. That isunlikely, however, the these big variations in the Earth"s geography werethe primary cause of the latest permanent cooling tendency as castle fail todecrease temperature on a an international scale.
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Likewise, an altering topography cannot, by itself,explain this cooling trend. Computer model experiment performed to check theclimate"s sensitivity come mountains and also high plateaus display that plateau upliftin Tibet and western phibìc America has actually a small effect top top globaltemperature yet cannot define the magnitude of the cooling trend. Plateauuplift does, however, have actually a far-ranging impact on climate, consisting of thediversion of phibìc Hemisphere westerly winds and also intensification of monsoonalcirculation.

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Geometry of s Basins

Another theory explaining these alters in climate requires the opened andclosing of gateways for the flow of s currents. This theory suggests thatthe redistribution of heat on the earth by changing ocean circulation canisolate polar regions, reason the growth of ice sheets and also sea ice, and increasetemperature differences between the equator and the poles.Ocean modeling experiments imply that the ocean could not have brought enoughheat come the poles to maintain the early warm climates. However atmospheric climatemodeling experiments present that even if the s did transport sufficient heat upto the shore of Antarctica to keep sea surface ar temperatures at 10 come 15degrees Celsius, the interior conditions would still be much chillier - and also thisis contradictory to the geologic record. That is possible, however, that changes inheat transport brought about by sports in ocean gateways may have played asignificant duty in cooling patterns over the critical 60 million years, and, inparticular, may assist explain some of the relatively sudden cooling events.

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

Changes in the concentration the carbon dioxide in the setting are a strongcandidate to define the overall pattern that climatic change. Carbon dioxideinfluences the mean worldwide temperature v the greenhouse effect. The worldwide averaged surface ar temperaturefor the planet is approximately 15 levels Celsius, and this is due greatly tothe greenhouse effect. Solar radiation start earth"s setting ispredominantly brief wave, while warmth radiated native the Earth"s surface ar is longwave. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and also other trace gases in theEarth"s environment absorb this lengthy wave radiation. Due to the fact that the planet does notallow this lengthy wave radiation come leave, the solar power is trapped and also thenet effect is to warm the Earth. If no for the presence of one atmosphere,the surface temperature on earth would be well below the freezing point ofwater.Through a million year period, the typical amount the carbon dioxide in theatmosphere is influenced by four fluxes: flux that carbon as result of (1) metamorphicdegassing, (2) weathering of necessary carbon, (3) weathering of silicates, (4)burial of essential carbon. Degassing reactions connected with volcanicactivity and also the combining of necessary carbon with oxygen relax carbon dioxideinto the atmosphere. Vice versa, the funeral of organic matter removes carbondioxide indigenous the atmosphere.
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Plate collisions disrupt these carbon fluxes in avariety that ways, part tending to elevate and also some tending to reduced theatmospheric carbon dioxide level. It has been said that the Eocene, theearly heat trend 55 million years ago, was brought about by elevated atmosphericcarbon dioxide and that a subsequent decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide ledto the cooling tendency over the past 52 million years. One mechanism proposed asa cause of this to decrease in carbon dioxide is that mountain uplift lead toenhanced weathering the silicate rocks, and thus removed of carbon dioxide indigenous atmosphere.In addition, the collision the India and Asia resulted in the uplift that the TibetanPlateau and also the Himalayas. If topography may not be enough to describe thecooling trends, an additional mechanism may account for changing climate. The upliftmay have actually caused both an increase in the worldwide rate of chemistry erosion, aswell together erode fresh minerals that are swiftly transported to lower elevations,which space warmer and moister and enable chemical weathering to take place moreefficiently. V these mechanisms, then, it has been hypothesized that thetectonically moved uplift that the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is theprime reason of the post-Eocene cooling trend.Kirk A. Maasch is a professor at the college of Maine, in the room ofGeological Sciences.Ice house | huge Chill | Greenhouse | ContinentsLinks | Table of Contents